Keywords: incineration, landfills, recycling, producer responsibility, policy instruments, sustainable waste management, sustainability, Sweden, taxation, labelling, hazardous substances, fees
Developing and evaluating new policy instruments for sustainable waste management
The aim of this paper is to suggest a number of interesting policy instruments that can make the Swedish waste management system more sustainable. Approximately 60 suggestions for policy instruments were gathered through a number of workshops with stakeholders. These were further prioritised in a workshop with stakeholders and by the research team resulting in a list of 15 instruments: information to citizens and companies; tax on raw materials; weight–based waste collection fee; environmentally differentiated waste collection fee; waste minimisation in enterprises; 'Advertising brochures - yes, please!'; recycling certificates; developed collection systems; tax on incineration of waste from fossil fuels; tax on incineration of waste; including waste in green certificates for electricity production; tax on hazardous substances; labelling of goods with hazardous substances; improved control by authorities; differentiated VAT and ban on incineration of recyclable materials. Several policy instruments are needed that can complement each other.