Development of a Solid-Phase Microextraction-Based Method for Sampling of Persistent Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in an Urbanized Coastal Environment

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Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has been used as an in situ sampling technique for a wide range of volatile organic chemicals, but SPME field sampling of nonvolatile organic pollutants has not been reported. This paper describes the development of an SPME-based sampling method employing a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-coated (100-ím thickness) fiber as the sorbent phase. The laboratory-calibrated PDMS-coated fibers were used to construct SPME samplers, and field tests were conducted at three coastal locations off southern California to determine the equilibrium sampling time and compare the efficacy of the SPME samplers with that of an Infiltrex 100 water pumping system (Axys Environmental Systems Ltd., Sidney, British Columbia, Canada). p,p¢-DDE and o,p¢-DDE were the components consistently detected in the SPME samples among 42 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and 17 chlorinated pesticides targeted.SPMEsamplers deployed at two locations with moderate and high levels of contamination for 18 and 30 d, respectively, attained statistically identical concentrations of p,p¢-DDE and o,p¢-DDE. In addition, SPME samplers deployed for 23 and 43 d, respectively, at a location of low contamination also contained statistically identical concentrations of p,p¢-DDE. These results indicate that equilibrium could be reached within 18 to 23 d.

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