John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Development of Helisoma trivolvis pond snails as biological samplers for biomonitoring of current‐use pesticides

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Courtesy of John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Non‐target aquatic organisms residing in wetlands are commonly exposed to current‐use pesticides through spray drift and runoff. However, it is frequently challenging to measure exposure due to rapid dissipation of pesticides from water and reduced bioavailability. Our hypothesis is that freshwater snails can serve as bioindicators of pesticide exposure based on their capacity to passively accumulate tissue residues. Helisoma trivolvis snails were evaluated as biomonitors of pesticide exposure using a fungicide formulation that contains pyraclostrobin and metconazole and is frequently applied to crops surrounding depressional wetlands. Exposure‐response studies indicate that H. trivolvis are tolerant of pyraclostrobin and metconazole at concentrations >10x those lethal to many aquatic species with a median lethal concentration based on pyraclostrobin of 441 µg/L (95% CI of 359‐555 µg/L). Bioconcentration factors ranged from 137‐211 mL/g and 39‐59 mL/g for pyraclostrobin and metconazole, respectively. Elimination studies suggested one‐compartmental elimination and snail tissue half‐lives (t50) of approximately 15 h and 5 h for pyraclostrobin and metconazole, respectively. Modeling derived toxicokinetic parameters in the context of an environmentally‐relevant pulsed exposure suggests residues can be measured in snails long after water concentrations fall below detection limits. With high fungicide tolerance, rapid accumulation, and slow elimination, H. trivolvis may be viable for biomonitoring of pyraclostrobin and should be investigated for other pesticides. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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