Keywords: wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse, monitoring, evaluation, indicators, wastewater collection, wastewater management, water resources
Development of monitoring and evaluation system for wastewater issues in Palestine
Wastewater is the main source of groundwater pollution if it is not properly collected and treated. In many parts of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank wastewater is collected through cesspits, while in other areas it is collected through networks and treated in central treatments plants. Collecting aggregate information on the level of indicators with concern to the wastewater issues (collection, treatment and reuse) is essential for efficient wastewater management. So that conclusions regarding the level of 'improvement' or 'degradation' of various environmental compartments as a result of wastewater practices can be given. The approach to be followed consists of designing a monitoring system for wastewater (the parameter to be monitored, the location of monitored points and the temporal frequency of monitoring). The second part of the approach includes the design of an evaluation system for wastewater issues by considering the Driving force State Pressure Impact Response (DSPIR) model. Both systems will be applied to the Gaza Wastewater Treatment Plant and wastewater reuse pilot. Developing such systems will enhance the effective control and monitoring of operation of the wastewater treatment plants. It also can establish a concrete basis for the sustainable wastewater treatment and reuse.