Keywords: radioactive waste treatment, ceramic matrix, self-propagating high-temperature synthesis, irradiated graphite, graphite high level waste, radionuclide immobilisation, radionuclides, carbide corundum matrix, spent nuclear fuel, nuclear reactors, nuclear energy, nuclear power, radiation safety, nuclear safety, nuclear waste disposal, geological disposal, simulation, nuclear science, nuclear technology, Russia
Development of technology for high-level radwaste treatment to ceramic matrix by method of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis
For the purpose of reduction of the risk of spread of transuranic actinides, carbon-14 and other radionuclides contained in the NPP HLW, the Rosenergoatom concern decided to develop a technology of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) to obtain a ceramic matrix suitable for long-term and ecologically safe deep geological disposal of the high-level radwaste of the nuclear industry. The proposed graphite HLW treatment method to immobilise the radionuclides into the thermally, chemically and radiation stable carbide-corundum matrix is based on a SHS-process according to the chemical reaction in the system C+Al+TiO2, where the component C is irradiated graphite of the RBMK reactor core moderators. This paper reports the results of the R&D activities for optimising the SHS technology on a pilot plant using non-irradiated graphite and fuel spill simulators (HLW).