John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Dietary bioavailability of cadmium presented to the gastropod Peringia ulvae as quantum dots and in ionic form

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For quantum dots (QDs) synthesised in solvents that are immiscible in water, dietary, rather than aqueous exposure, is expected to be the primary route of uptake. The estuarine snail, Peringia ulvae, was presented with mats of simulated detritus spiked with oleic acid capped‐ CdS (3.1 ± 0.4 nm) or CdSe (4.2 ± 0.8 nm) nanoparticles, synthesised using a microfluidics method, or Cd2+ (added as Cd(NO3)2) as a control. A biodynamic modelling approach was used to quantify parameters that describe the dietary accumulation of the Cd forms. Ingestion rates decreased across treatments at higher exposure concentrations indicating a metal‐induced stress response related to Cd dose rather than form. Although Cd was bioavailable from both CdS and CdSe QDs, uptake rate constants from diet were significantly lower than that of Cd2+ (p < 0.05). However, following 72 h depuration no loss of Cd was observed from snails that had accumulated Cd from either type of QD. In comparison, snails ingesting Cd2+‐spiked detritus eliminated 39% of their accumulated body burden per day. The almost identical uptake and efflux rates for Cd in both QDs suggest that there was no effect of the chalcogenide conjugates (S or Se). Our findings indicate that the availability of Cd in NP form and their apparent in vivo persistence will lead to bioaccumulation. The implications of this are discussed. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2013 SETAC

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