Dietary Uptake Models Used for Modeling the Bioaccumulation of Organic Contaminants in Fish - Critical Review
Numerous models have been developed to predict the bioaccumulation of organic chemicals in fish. Although chemical dietary uptake can be modeled using assimilation efficiencies, bioaccumulation models fall into two distinct groups. The first group implicitly assumes that assimilation efficiencies describe the net chemical exchanges between fish and their food. These models describe chemical elimination as a lumped process that is independent of the fish´s egestion rate or as a process that does not require an explicit fecal excretion term. The second group, however, explicitly assumes that assimilation efficiencies describe only actual chemical uptake and formulates chemical fecal and gill excretion as distinct, thermodynamically driven processes. After reviewing the derivations and assumptions of the algorithms that have been used to describe chemical dietary uptake of fish, their application, as implemented in 16 published bioaccumulation models, is analyzed for largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), walleye (Sander vitreus = Stizostedion vitreum), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) that bioaccumulate an unspecified, poorly metabolized, hydrophobic chemical possessing a log KOW of 6.5 (i.e., a chemical similar to a pentachlorobiphenyl).