Keywords: private sector involvement, PSI, water supply, sanitation, drinking water, utilities, partnerships, twinning, water services
Different faces of private sector involvement in the water supply and sanitation sector
The discussion over Private Sector Involvement (PSI) has changed during the last decade. Originally, the debate focused on whether utilities with PSI were more efficient or not. However, when different contractual forms became more important, the functioning of contracts received more attention. Currently, new types of partnership are emerging and may have better chances to be successful. The debate is going beyond the old dichotomy of 'public versus private' forms of water supply. The partnerships are not only between public and private partners, but also between public and other levels of government, or between public and NGOs. Also twinning projects, which are more trust-based, between water utilities and other water operators are emerging.