Differential gene expression analysis in fish exposed to endocrine disrupting compounds.
This review discusses various methodologies that can be used to understand, at the gene level, the consequences to fish upon exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). Several approaches for measuring expression of gene transcripts are discussed, including directed approaches, such as Northern blotting and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) as well as open-ended approaches, such as differential display RT-PCR, subtractive hybridizations, and gene arrays. Each of these systems has advantages and disadvantages, strengths and weaknesses. Conducting experiments with each of these methods provides important information about the molecular mechanisms that result from exposure to EDCs, information which can be used in risk assessment of polluted sites found in the environment.