John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Direct soil contact values for ecological receptors exposed to weathered petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) fraction 2

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Ecological tier 1 Canada‐wide standards (CWS) for petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) fraction 2 (F2; >nC10–C16) in soil were derived using ecotoxicological assessment endpoints (effective concentrations [ECs]/lethal concentrations [LCs]/inhibitory contrations, 25% [IC25s]) with freshly spiked (“fresh”) fine‐ and coarse‐grained soils. These soil standards might be needlessly conservative when applied to field samples with weathered hydrocarbons. The purpose of the present study was to assess the degradation and toxicity of weathered PHC F2 in a fine‐grained soil and to derive direct soil contact values for ecological receptors. Fine‐grained reference soils were spiked with distilled F2 and weathered for 183 d. Toxicity tests using plants and invertebrates were conducted with the weathered F2‐spiked soils. Endpoint EC/IC25s were calculated and used to derive soil standards for weathered F2 in fine‐grained soil protective of ecological receptors exposed via direct soil contact. The values derived for weathered F2 were less restrictive than current ecological tier 1 CWS for F2 in soil. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. © 2012 SETAC

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