Disposal of drainage water in fresh water of Sindh Province, Pakistan

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Courtesy of EMU-SIDA

The mankind has been settling and hebetating their villages, towns and cities beside banks of rivers and natural or artificial streamline of water resources for many thousand years. In the initial era, people pass their lives in jungle and woods and they get food from raw material. But when they gradually thought to live together for passing social life, they knew that individual could not complete his needs and wishes of leading life; accordingly, they would have to rest on each other for developing societies. Therefore, such as social life and activities lead them to accumulate and increase density of population in urban area and development of industrial sector. The augment in density of demography and development of Industrial sector led to generation of huge solid waste material and wastewater and dangerous chemicals. The polluted solid material and wastewater are the major sources of endemic diseases such as diarrhea, hepatitis and respiratory etc. The polluted water from towns/cities and industries is being disposed-off irrigation network or natural streamline, flowing beside the cities and towns.

There are many towns and cities of Sindh province settled on the banks of rivers and irrigation channels, which are generating polluted water and hence deteriorating the natural environment and the ecology. Therefore, it is very necessary to control the unabated disposal of untreated wastewater into the irrigation network. There are stipulations and provisions in the 1997 Pakistan Environment Act that relate to Urban and Industrial pollution but there is as such no law for the control of untreated disposal of untreated domestic and industrial wastewater into the irrigation network. Therefore, there is dire need to make legal/regulatory framework to control the disposal of untreated wastewater into irrigation network.

Environmental Management Unit (EMU) has been established in SIDA to address environmental issues within Sindh Province. In this regard it carried out various studies and accordingly prepared reports. It has worked on the irrigation and drainage system of Sindh province and found that domestic and industrial effluent is disposed-off without giving any necessary treatment. Therefore, water-borne diseases have become prone among the masses. The situation is grave where the irrigation channel is passing through any town or city. In this regard, samples of channel water and wastewater were collected from various locations and their laboratory results show alarming situation as different parameters have crossed the desired threshold. The disposal locations of wastewater from towns, cities and industries are elaborated in Tables-I & II.

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