Keywords: vanadium fractions, karst, risk assessment, surface sediments, China, karstic lakes, trace metals, water pollution
Distribution, fraction and risk assessment of vanadium in surface sediments from a Chinese karstic lake: a case study of Hongfeng Lake
The distribution characteristics of vanadium and its fraction based on the Tessier sequential extraction method were studied in surface sediment samples collected from Hongfeng Lake. The results of this study indicated that the total amount of vanadium in the sediment samples ranged from 124.0 to 213.0 mg/kg. The average percentages of exchangeable, bound to carbonates, bound to Fe–Mn oxides, bound to organic matter and residual were 2.79, 2.75, 30.40, 2.89 and 59.32, respectively. The concentrations of the different vanadium fractions decreased in the order of residual > bound to Fe–Mn oxides > bound to organic matter > exchangeable ≈ bound to carbonates. Furthermore, assessment using the enrichment factors (EF), the ratio of secondary to primary phase (RSP) and the secondary phases enrichment factor (SPEF) methods showed that the risk of vanadium in sediments especially from sites TLHJC and TX from Hongfeng Lake was generally high.