Keywords: nanotechnologies, nanotechnology clusters, cluster diversity, cognitive entrepreneurs, entrepreneurial diversity, evolutionary economics, experimental learning, knowing communities, entrepreneurship, risk taking entrepreneurs, ICT, biotechnology
Diversity of entrepreneurs and diversity of clusters in nanotechnologies
The objective of the present contribution is to characterise the nature and role of entrepreneurs in nanotechnologies. The analysis is conducted with regards to specific contexts of emergence of nanotechnologies that we characterise by a two-stage process of development. We show that the risk-taking entrepreneur who transforms externalities into new activities by combining existing resources is likely to be more present in the on-going phase characterised by the deepening of the microscopic control of matter. The phase of convergence between ICT and biotechnologies should be associated to a more cognitive type of entrepreneur who combines knowledge by bridging communities together.