Dye removal from textile industrial effluents by adsorption on exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets: kinetic and equilibrium studies
The concept of physical adsorption was applied for the removal of direct and reactive blue textile dyes from industrial effluents. Commercial graphite nanoplatelets were used as substrate, and the quality of the material was characterized by atomic force and transmission electron microscopies. Dye/graphite nanoplatelets water solutions were prepared varying their pH and initial dye concentration. Exceptionally high values (beyond 100 mg/L) for adsorptive capacity of graphite nanoplatelets could be achieved without complicated chemical modifications, and equilibrium and kinetic experiments were performed. Our findings were compared with the state of the art, and compared with theoretical models. Agreement between them was satisfactory, and allowed us to propose novel considerations describing the interactions of the dyes and the graphene planar structure. The work highlights the important role of these interactions, which can govern the mobility of the dye molecules and the amount of layers that can be stacked on the graphite nanoplatelets surface.