Keywords: biotechnology policy, policy-making, policy instruments, EU member states, national systems of innovation, market failure, systems failures, European Union, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, research, technology transfer, commercialisation, regional government
Dynamics in biotechnology policy-making in Europe in the period 1994?2006
This article analyses the dynamics in national biotechnology policy-making in the 15 old EU member states and three associated European countries (Iceland, Norway and Switzerland) in the period from 1994?2006. It uses two data sets on national biotechnology policy instruments; the first covers the period from 1994?1998 and the second, the period from 2002?2005. The article analyses the changes in the first and second-generation policies and policy instruments that support biotechnology from a national systems perspective and assesses the changes in terms of market and systems failures. Analysis shows that first-generation policies (supporting basic and applied research) have kept their top position. Strong dynamics were found in second-generation policies encouraging technology transfer and commercialisation. A major trend in 2002?2005 was the increased regional government participation in biotechnology policy-making.