Keywords: nuclear desalination, waterelectricity cogeneration, modelling, dynamic simulation, pressurised water reactors, PWR, reactor neutronics, reactor control, fuel cladding integrity, reverse osmosis, nuclear reactors, reactivity changes, nuclear safety
Dynamics of reverse osmosis in a standalone cogenerative nuclear reactor (Part I: reactivity changes)
The present study considers the dynamic behaviour of the pressurised water reactor safety features, represented by the integrity of the fuel cladding, under some transient cases. A cosine-shaped heating through the fuel is taken with the corresponding coolant lumps, to simulate realistic cases encountered in nuclear reactors. A mathematical model was developed for the Westinghouse 3411 MWth pressurised water reactor, as an example of a familiar design with predominantly published data design. The model consists of two parts. The first part is concerned with the dynamics of the primary side of the reactor, which is described in this paper. The second part is concerned with the secondary side of the plant, which is described elsewhere in this issue. To study the dynamics of the reactor, a model of 17 lumped parameters was used, consisting of first-order differential equations deduced from the first principles considering six groups of delayed neutrons. A computer program was developed using the Runge-Kutta method to solve these equations and to predict the behaviour of the state variables with time. Two case studies were considered as examples for normal transients. The first case study, which represents Part 1 of this study, considers the effect of primary side transient on the system as the reactivity changes. Reactor reactivity changes, including movements of the reactor control rods, which are taken as an example for the effect of the reactor primary side conditions. These reactivity changes vary from 0.0005 up to 0.003, both for positive and negative reactivity. The results of the developed model, which describe the dynamic response of the reactor primary circuit, have been analysed and verified with the relevant models. These results indicate that the reactor components and the integrity of the fuel cladding were attained during different step changes of reactivity.