Keywords: ecological modernisation, eco-industrial development, local economy, public policy, waste
Ecological modernisation and local economic development: the growth of eco-industrial development initiatives
An increasingly influential approach for policy makers is that of ecological modernisation. This approach advocates substantial changes in patterns of production and consumption, but envisages this taking place within the existing social and economic system. This paper investigates one particular form of ecological modernisation policy response at the local level that is growing in importance – the development of eco-industrial initiatives. These initiatives are based upon concepts derived from industrial ecology, aiming to increase business performance while at the same time reducing pollution and waste. The paper outlines the development of eco-industrial initiatives, particularly those based around diverting wastes into more productive uses, and provides a critique of ecological modernisation as a policy programme.