This study presents the main economic implications of diverting some relevant PVC waste streams from incineration to alternative options such as landfill and mechanical recycling. The analysis is based on three different scenarios. For each scenario the financial costs avoided and incurred are estimated, and the major environmental burdens are identified and quantified. As far as possible, the external costs are calculated and then compared with the results of the financial analysis. All the 15 Member states plus six accession countries are covered by the study.