Keywords: environmental management systems, EMS, voluntary approach, agriculture, urbanisation, environmental protection, Canada, farming practices, farm management
Effect of urbanisation on the adoption of environmental management systems in Canadian agriculture
This study examines the extent to which farming practices have adjusted to the presence of urbanisation in Canada. In particular, we compare the adoption rates for Environmental Management Systems (EMSs) by farmers close to urbanised areas versus those in more rural, isolated regions. Using information from a national survey of 16,053 farmers, 8 EMSs are considered. We find that farmers operating close to the urban milieu demonstrate strategic behaviour by selecting more environmentally friendly farm management practices to overcome social and regulatory pressures from such communities compared to those farmers who operate in rural communities.