John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Effects of 17α‐ethynylestradiol, fluoxetine and the mixture on life history traits and population growth rates in a freshwater gastropod

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Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), some of which have endocrine disrupting effects at environmentally relevant concentrations, have been detected in many surface waters. We evaluated the effects of two common endocrine disrupting PPCPs on the life history traits of the snail, Physa pomilia, using a life table response experiment with snails raised in environmentally relevant concentrations of EE2, fluoxetine, or their mixture. Snail reproduction was reduced by exposure to fluoxetine or the mixture, but not by EE2. Generally, individual life history traits were minimally affected by the PPCPs but when integrated using a demographic model, population growth rates were decreased by all three chemical exposure scenarios, with the EE2 and fluoxetine mixture causing the most adverse effects. Overall, our results provide additional insight into the effects of PPCPs on freshwater invertebrates and point to the importance of testing simultaneous exposures to multiple PPCPs. Also, the use of a demographic model to integrate individual endpoints provided insights into effects that were not apparent from individual life history traits alone and suggest at least a potential for adverse ecological effects under realistic environmental exposures concentrations. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2013 SETAC

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