John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Effects of 17β‐estradiol pollution on water microbial methane oxidation activity

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17β‐estradiol (17β‐E2), one of natural estrogens widespread in the environment, has imposed a serious threat to the safety and function of aquatic ecosystems due to worsening pollution and high potential toxicity. In the present study we focus on the impact of 17β‐E2 pollution on water microbial methane oxidation function. We investigated the mechanism of its influence on water microbial activity and discussed the growth rate of methane‐oxidizing bacteria. Our results showed 17β‐E2 could significant inhibit the function of water microbial methane oxidation. When 17β‐E2 concentration ≥ 5ng L−1, methane oxidation rate increased with increasing 17β‐E2 and finally tended to a constant value, furthermore there was no significant linear correlation between 17β‐E2 concentrations and its methane oxidation rate. However, increasing 17β‐E2 dramaticlly improved water microbial community activity, a significant or highly significantly promote in generation rate of CO2 was measured. Moreover, within a certain period of time and concentrations, positive linear correlation existed between water CO2 generation rate and 17β‐E2 concentrations. In addition, the growth rate of culturable methane‐oxidizing bacteria was promoted when 17β‐E2 pollution concentration within 2‐20ng L−1. Therefore, 17β‐E2 pollution can inhibit microbial methane oxidation function in water, which indirectly promotes the release of water methane, directly contributed to the rate of water generate and release of CO2. Namely 17β‐E2 pollution can promote water emissions of greenhouse gases. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2014 SETAC

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