Keywords: atmosphere, critical load, acidic deposition, doses, ecosystems, living organisms, nitrogen oxide, pollutants, resistance, sensitivity, sulphur dioxide, target levels, woodlands, environmental pollution
Effects of acidic depositions on living organisms
The effects of acidic depositions and sulphur and nitrogen gaseous concentrations on living organisms are mostly of a chronic nature. Effects occur at the individual, population and ecosystem level and affect both structural and functional attributes. Knowledge of the relationship between dose and effect (response) enables critical loads of depositions and critical levels of concentrations to be set. These are able to form the basis for setting differential target depositions (or loads) or target concentrations that can be used in evolving deposition abatement strategies.