John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Effects of triclocarban, deet and a mixture of pharmaceuticals and personal care products on fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

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Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been detected widely in aquatic ecosystems, but little is known about their mechanisms of toxicity. We exposed adult fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) for 48 hours to triclocarban (1.4 µg/L), DEET (0.6 µg/L) or to a PPCP mixture consisting of atenolol (1.5 µg/L), caffeine (0.25 µg/L), diphenhydramine (0.1 µg/L), gemfibrozil (1.5 µg/L), ibuprofen (0.4 µg/L), naproxen (1.6 µg/L), triclosan (2.3 µg/L), progesterone (0.2 µg/L), triclocarban (1.4 µg/L), and DEET (0.6 µg/L). Quantitative real‐time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed an up‐regulation in vtg (vitellogenin) in livers of females and males exposed to triclocarban. Also, an up‐regulation of hepatic lpl (lipoprotein lipase) and a down‐regulation of ar (androgen receptor) and star (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein) were observed in testes. The group treated with DEET only showed a significant decrease in ar in females. In contrast, the PPCP mixture down‐regulated vtg in females and males, and expression of erα (estrogen receptor alpha), star, and thra1 (thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1) in testes. Our results show the molecular ‘estrogenic’ effects of triclocarban are eliminated (males) or reversed (females) when dosed in conjunction with several other PPCPs, once again showing that results from single exposures could be vastly different from those observed with mixtures. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2013 SETAC

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