John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Effects of triclosan on marine benthic and epibenthic organisms

Triclosan is an antimicrobial compound that has been widely used in consumer products such as toothpaste, deodorant, and shampoo. Because of its widespread use, triclosan has been detected in various environmental media, including wastewater, sewage sludge, surface waters, and sediments. Triclosan is acutely toxic to numerous aquatic organisms, but very few studies have been performed on estuarine and marine benthic organisms. For whole sediment toxicity tests, the sediment‐dwelling estuarine amphipod, Ampelisca abdita, and the epibenthic mysid shrimp, Americamysis bahia, are commonly used organisms. In the present study, median lethal concentration values (LC50) were obtained for both of these organisms using water‐only and whole sediment exposures. Acute 96‐h water‐only toxicity tests resulted in LC50 values of 73.4 and 74.3 µg/L for the amphipod and mysid, respectively. For the 7‐d whole sediment toxicity test, LC50 values were 303 and 257 mg/kg (dry wt) for the amphipod and mysid, respectively. Using equilibrium partitioning theory, these whole sediment values are equivalent to interstitial water LC50 values of 230 and 190 µg/L for the amphipod and mysid, respectively, which are within a threefold difference of the observed 96‐h LC50 water‐only values. Triclosan was found to accumulate in polychaete tissue in a 28‐d bioaccumulation study with a biota‐sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) of 0.23 kg organic carbon/kg lipid. These data provide some of the first toxicity data for triclosan with marine benthic and epibenthic species while also indicating a need to better understand the effects of other forms of sediment carbon, triclosan ionization, and organism metabolism of triclosan on the chemical's behavior and toxicity in the aquatic environment. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. © 2012 SETAC

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