Keywords: electrochemical biosensors, environmental monitoring, ecotoxitology, pollutants, herbicides, pesticides, toxins, environmental pollution, health hazards, health risks, environmental analysis
The challenge for the monitoring of environmental hazards such as pollutants, herbicides, pesticides and toxins caused by expanding industrialisation and application of new intensive agricultural technologies is to develop efficient tools that offer precision, sensitivity, and speed and ease of operation in situ and avoid consequently risks for both human and environmental health. In this context, electrochemical biosensors appear as excellent analytical devices alternative or complementary to conventional systems for environmental monitoring purposes. This paper presents a review about the use of electrochemical biosensors for environmental analysis, taking into particular account the general principles and characteristics as well as some representative applications of enzymatic, antibody and aptamer–based biosensors. This review covers several papers published in the last 15 years putting in evidence the improvement reached in this field of research.