Elimination of enteric indicators and pathogenic bacteria in secondary effluents and lake water by solar disinfection (SODIS)

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The reduction of enteric indicators (fecal coliforms (FC) and Enterococcus faecalis) and elimination of pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus) in the secondary effluents and lake water by solar disinfection (SODIS) was studied in this article. FC, E. faecalis, Salmonella spp. and S. aureus were isolated and enumerated using membrane filtration techniques after SODIS of samples inside transparent polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 h. The results show that SODIS can reduce numbers of FC, Salmonella spp. and S. aureus by more than 4 log10 colony forming units (CFU)/100 mL after 6 h. However, regrowth of these bacteria was observed after the incubation of the treated samples at 37 °C for 24 h, whereas SODIS for 8 h would eliminate pathogenic bacteria and no regrowth would be observed in these samples as determined by an absence and presence technique using enrichment medium. E. faecalis was not eliminated in the secondary effluents and lake water by SODIS, but this bacterium was reduced to less than detection limits (1 CFU/100 mL) when the treated secondary effluent samples were stored for 16 days at room temperature. The elimination of pathogenic bacteria and reduction of enteric indicators resulted in undetectable levels using SODIS for secondary effluents and lake water.

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