Emission inventory of deca-brominated diphenyl ether (DBDE) in Japan
Atmospheric emissions of deca-brominated diphenyl ether (DBDE) in Japan were estimated based on the material flow of DBDE products and their emission factors. In 2002, the demand for DBDE in Japan was 2200 ton/year and the stock level was about 60?000 ton. The DBDE flow into the waste stream was estimated to be about 6000 ton/year and the flow out through second-hand product exports was more than 700 ton/year. Home appliance recycling facilities dismantle and crush domestic wastes containing about 600 ton of DBDE annually. Material recycling of crushed plastics is not commonly practiced as yet. Emission factors from plastics processing (2 × 10-9–1 × 10-7), textile processing (9 × 10-7), home appliance recycling (8 × 10-9–5 × 10-6), and waste incineration (1 × 10-7–2 × 10-6) were estimated using field measurement data. The DBDE emission rate through house dust during the service life of final products (2 × 10-7–9 × 10-7 per year) was estimated using the DBDE concentration in dust and the amount of dust in used televisions. Emission factors from previous studies were also used. The estimated total DBDE emission was 170–1800?kg/year. These results suggest the necessity of characterizing emissions during the service life of products, which is essential information for formulating an appropriate e-waste recycling strategy.