Keywords: energy system analysis, energy model, CO2 emission reduction, endogenous technological learning
Endogenous learning and technology clustering: analysis with MARKAL model of the Western European energy system
The paper describes experience gained from experiments with the comprehensive energy system model MARKAL for Western Europe, including endogenous technology learning based on the learning by doing mechanism. These experiments have confirmed the benefits expected from adoption of the mechanism. An important issue, often overlooked in relatively simple energy system models is the notion of interdependency between (families of) technologies, rather than considering individually learning technologies. An approach to address such clusters has been developed and tested. The results indicate that the new 'cluster feature' improves the internal consistency and allows for assessment of spillover and cross-over effects, and other mechanisms identified in technology dynamics.