Keywords: Sudan, energy potential, consumption patterns, impacts on environment
Energy in Sudan
Sudan is an agricultural country with fertile land, plenty of water resources, livestock, forestry resources, and agricultural residues. An overview of the energy situation in Sudan is introduced with reference to the end uses and regional distribution. Energy sources are divided into two main types: conventional energy (biomass, petroleum products, and electricity); and non-conventional energy (solar, wind, hydro, etc.). Sudan possesses a relatively high abundance of sunshine, solar radiation, and moderate wind speeds, hydro, and biomass energy resources. Application of new and renewable sources of energy available in Sudan is now a major issue in the future energy strategic planning for the alternative to the fossil conventional energy to provide part of the local energy demand. Sudan is an important case study in the context of renewable energy. It has a long history of meeting its energy needs through renewables. Sudan's renewables portfolio is broad and diverse, due in part to the country's wide range of climates and landscapes. Like many of the African leaders in renewable energy utilisation, Sudan has a well-defined commitment to continue research, development, and implementation of new technologies. Sustainable low-carbon energy scenarios for the new century emphasise the untapped potential of renewable resources. Rural areas of Sudan can benefit from this transition. The increased availability of reliable and efficient energy services stimulates new development alternatives. It is concluded that renewable environmentally friendly energy must be encouraged, promoted, invested, implemented, and demonstrated by full-scale plant especially for use in remote rural areas of Sudan.