Keywords: electricity generation, MARKAL modelling, reference energy systems, rural energy, rural India, decentralised power generation, Indian villages, renewable energy systems, carbon dioxide emissions, biogas, photovoltaics, irrigation pumps
Energy technologies for rural areas ? decentralised power generation through MARKAL modelling: a case study
Due to shortage of power, extremely subsidised tariffs, poor financial recovery, long transmission lines, there exists a very poor demand-supply balance in the rural energy sectors of India. MARKAL bases analysis of a village-group in western India reveals that there is a potential of reducing the electricity demand by about 18% as compared to the business-as-usual case through adopting energy efficiency measures. Results show that in the studied area, renewable energy systems are not likely to penetrate without government subsidy. Sufficient potential was found for making the area independent from grid through decentralised electricity generation. Through decentralised electricity generation, there is a potential of reducing 2200 ton carbon-dioxide emissions as compared to the business-as-usual case. Electricity generation through bio-gas plants for domestic consumption and through photovoltaic systems for irrigation pumps have been found more attractive as compared to other options.