John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Environmental and human exposure to soil chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an urbanized region

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Nine chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl/BrPAHs) and five parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in urban surface soil and fly ash samples collected from Shenzhen, south China in winter 2010. The concentrations of total Cl/BrPAHs and PAHs in soil ranged from below the reporting limit to 142 ng/g and from 4.34 to 158 µg/g, respectively, and in fly ash they ranged from 17.7 to 19.5 ng/g and 26.1 to 28.3 µg/g, respectively. Concentrations of Cl/BrPAHs and parent PAHs were not significantly correlated with each other in soil or in fly ash, suggesting that Cl/BrPAHs were formed mainly by mechanisms other than direct halogenation of parent PAHs. Estimated mass inventories of 2‐BrFlu varied from 68.1 kg in commercial land to 669 kg in countryside land, the highest among all Cl/BrPAHs. Loss fluxes via soil erosion accounted for only small proportions of total soil mass inventories of Cl/BrPAHs. Average daily human intake via soil ingestion decreased with increasing age, with 2‐BrFlu as the main contributor. Children of 0 to 8 years old were the most sensitive subgroup (13.7 pg/kg body weight/day for total Cl/BrPAHs), and females were more sensitive than males in the same age group. The mean dioxin‐like toxic equivalency quotient (TEQ) concentration of total Cl/BrPAHs (0.008 ng‐TEQ/g) was lower in soil than in fly ash (0.06 ng‐TEQ/g). Conversely, the mean TEQ concentration of total parent PAHs (2.23 ng‐TEQ/g) was higher in soil than in fly ash. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. © 2012 SETAC

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