Environmental Management Unit (EMU) Sindh, Pakistan

Environmental degradation of Hamal Lake and adjoining areas due to the effluent of Balochistan and Upper Sindh areas

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Courtesy of Environmental Management Unit (EMU) Sindh, Pakistan

The site visit of Hamal Lake and its adjacent villages was carried out from 20th - 24th April, 2005 by a team of Environmental Management Unit – SIDA. The purpose of visit was essentially to find causes of deaths in Kachho area, to monitor quality of water and sources of contamination of waters of Hamal Lake. The samples were collected at zero point of Miro Khan drain at Hamal Lake from upstream of drains of Miro Khan and Shahdad Kot and downstream of their water mix up of both drains which ultimately disposes off into lake. The other samples were taken from Sarroh in which effluent water Kot Magsi Balochistan released, Badram and Kachhari water bodies that all in Hamal Lake, and also upstream and downstream of Main Nara Valley Drain (MNVD) Regulator structure, this structure was constructed on southeastern side of lake, nearby left of Warrah to Hamal village, Kachho area road.


Fresh and safe water for drinking is a basic need of human beings. The hygienic drinking water has long been considering a crucial environmental issue for human health. The water quality standard was recognized as important issue in the ancient times, Sanskrit writings advocated for heating and filtering of drinking water as early as 2000 B.C.

In the developing countries serious concerns have not been given for the maintenance of the quality fresh surface and groundwater bodies in the comparison of developed countries. They are not conscious about importance of safe water bodies. Therefore, all poisonous and contaminated water of drains, industries, urban/rural effluent and wastage of material are being disposed-off into the surface water bodies that also leads to pollution of fresh groundwater aquifers.

All the major water bodies of Sindh province have been polluted over a period of time. These water bodies are interconnected with Indus River, like the artery system for blood circulation in bodies of living things. These are sources of livelihood for many thousands peoples and supplying fresh water for drinking water to millions of peoples as well as other creatures. The main source of contamination of Hamal Lake is attributed to the disposal of the effluent of Balochistan, Miro Khan Drain and Shahdad Kot Drain. Hamal Lake has been playing pivotal role for centuries, which is connected through Main Nara Valley Drain (MNVD) to Manchar Lake. Once water accumulates in this lake, it eventually outfalls into Manchar Lake via MNVD.

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