Economic activities generate pollution, which causes damages to the society and the environment. It is possible to estimate the quantities of emitted pollutants from energy conversion systems using thermodynamic principles combined with empirical techniques. The indices of direct emission are often not sufficient to show the entire environmental load because production processes are interconnected. The methodology of determination of cumulative exergy consumption was proposed by Szargut as the thermo-ecological cost (TEC). Recently, Szargut and Stanek published the methodology of cumulative CO2 emission determination called thermo-climatic cost (TCC). The main objective is to show that the TCC can be extended to evaluation of emission of any harmful substance. To achieve that, the new index of cumulative emission (CEm) is proposed. Two different methods of evaluating the cost of emission are presented; physical (exergy) used to investigate the influence of emission on the depletion of natural resources; and economic (monetary) used to show the influence of externalities on the market prices of consumer goods.
- Inderscience Publishers
- Environmental externalities and their effect on the cost of ...
The Rising Cost of Water
There`s a common economic paradox about the price tag on drinking water and value. Our current economic climate places prices on things predicated on scarcity and value. Water pricing is now more widespread, with the dual goal of expanding supply and encouraging more responsible use. So long as water remained abundant, the cheapness of drinking water is not likely to change. However, the price of water has entered into serious questioning. The price tag on water increased 4 percent this past year, according to...
Water: the natural choice - better comfort, lower cost
Hydronic systems deliver safe, more responsive indoor comfort, especially with multiple zones. They provide the most efficient method of dehumidifying in humid climates.Chilled water does the job.There are several ways to move BTUs around a building. Choosing water delivers superior comfort without the use and expense of man-made refrigerants. Water is the greenest, safest way to heat and cool. That`s why it`s the system of choice for America. Advanced technologies like single pipe distribution systems, variable...
Saving on electroplating costs
Montblanc is a company based in Hamburg, Germany, that is well-known for manufacturing handcrafted, high-quality writing instruments. Perhaps the best known Montblanc product is the classic masterpiece, a fountain pen. The pen’s cap features the white star emblem, which is a stylised nod to Mont Blanc’s snowy peak. All Montblanc writing instruments are characterised by their high-quality materials. Many individual components in the pens – such as the nibs, rings and clips – are made from...
Evaporative cooling cuts energy costs
Commercial contractors utilize alternative technology in today’s buildings It is estimated that HVAC systems account for approximately 40 percent of the energy used in commercial buildings, which is why many building owners and managers are looking for ways to cut these costs. One way to do that may be to utilize evaporative cooling systems, which can be relatively inexpensive to purchase and often require much less energy than other forms of cooling. Evaporative cooling technology is already becoming...
Waste tyre pyrolysis plant cost
How to convert waste tyres to useful resources? Now, it is no longer a problem. With 18 years` experience in the field of tyre pyrolysis, and continuous research, development and improvement, Doing group provides the latest waste tyre pyrolysis plant which has reached a high level in technology. The Waste tyre pyrolysis plant adopts the new green pyrolysis technology. Through the use of the tire pyrolysis oil plant, waste tyres can be effectively converted to fuel oil, carbon black and steel wire. The oil from...