Economic activities generate pollution, which causes damages to the society and the environment. It is possible to estimate the quantities of emitted pollutants from energy conversion systems using thermodynamic principles combined with empirical techniques. The indices of direct emission are often not sufficient to show the entire environmental load because production processes are interconnected. The methodology of determination of cumulative exergy consumption was proposed by Szargut as the thermo-ecological cost (TEC). Recently, Szargut and Stanek published the methodology of cumulative CO2 emission determination called thermo-climatic cost (TCC). The main objective is to show that the TCC can be extended to evaluation of emission of any harmful substance. To achieve that, the new index of cumulative emission (CEm) is proposed. Two different methods of evaluating the cost of emission are presented; physical (exergy) used to investigate the influence of emission on the depletion of natural resources; and economic (monetary) used to show the influence of externalities on the market prices of consumer goods.
- Inderscience Publishers
- Environmental externalities and their effect on the cost of ...
NREL Report Shows U.S. Solar Photovoltaic Costs Continuing to Fall in 2016
NREL U.S. PV system cost benchmarks, from the fourth quarter of 2009 to the first quarter of 2016 The modeled costs to install solar photovoltaic (PV) systems continued to decline in the first quarter of 2016 in the U.S. residential, commercial, and utility-scale sectors, according to updated benchmarks from the Energy Department`s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Driving the cost reductions were lower module and inverter prices, increased competition, lower installer and developer overheads,...
Reducing Costs of Steam Flow Measurement
Traditionally, steam flow has been measured with a differential pressure device. This is typically an orifice plate. However, such devices are inherently volumetric flow measurements. As we have discussed in previous blog posts, changes in pressure and temperature will change the mass flow rate of steam. Even a “small” change of 10% in steam pressure will result in a 10% error in non-compensated mass flow. This means that, in a typical differential pressure measurement installation, the volumetric...
How much does a residential solar system cost?
The cost of a solar system depends on the size of the system that is built. Systems can be built so they are scalable. It is important to know what size the solar panel system is, how much electricity will be produced, and the price per watt. Each solar system will produce different amounts depending on how good the design is, what shading could reduce the systems daily production, and where the solar panels are on the earth. Each geographical region and even location is going to receive different amounts of sun....
The Energy Consultant's Guide to a Green Energy Brief
A practical overview of how Combined Heat and Power (CHP) technology can be specified to meet a green energy brief When a green energy brief talks about conserving energy, reducing energy costs, reducing CO2 emissions, and improving the reliability of energy supply, energy consultants should consider Combined Heat and Power (CHP), which can generate: Low carbon energy – using fossil fuels, e.g. natural gas. Renewable (zero-carbon) energy – using non-fossil fuels. How dothe credentials of...
Why Levelized Cost of Electricity is an important measurement in wind
As the wind industry continues to grow, it is faced with much opposition, and a lot of misinformation is being shared. Some of the biggest myths around wind is that the costs of building and installing wind turbines are too high (compared to the costs of other energy sources) and that the industry is overly subsidized. Many anti-wind lobbyists point out that subsidies and tax benefits are the only reasons why the industry is currently flourishing, without actually looking at the hard facts and numbers such as...