Economic activities generate pollution, which causes damages to the society and the environment. It is possible to estimate the quantities of emitted pollutants from energy conversion systems using thermodynamic principles combined with empirical techniques. The indices of direct emission are often not sufficient to show the entire environmental load because production processes are interconnected. The methodology of determination of cumulative exergy consumption was proposed by Szargut as the thermo-ecological cost (TEC). Recently, Szargut and Stanek published the methodology of cumulative CO2 emission determination called thermo-climatic cost (TCC). The main objective is to show that the TCC can be extended to evaluation of emission of any harmful substance. To achieve that, the new index of cumulative emission (CEm) is proposed. Two different methods of evaluating the cost of emission are presented; physical (exergy) used to investigate the influence of emission on the depletion of natural resources; and economic (monetary) used to show the influence of externalities on the market prices of consumer goods.
- Inderscience Publishers
- Environmental externalities and their effect on the cost of ...
Molson Coors Saves Energy and Cuts Costs with the Dollar$ense Project and eSight Energy
With ~18,000 employees, 31 breweries world-wide, and with products in more than 50 countries, Molson Coors is one of the top producing manufactured brewing organizations in the world. It has a continuous drive to reduce energy costs and carbon emission with company-wide energy stewardship. Molson Coors has achieved significant reductions in energy usage, energy costs, and CO2 emissions since starting to use the eSight Energy Management Software in 2014. The Requirement Molson-Coors required an energy management...
Offshore wind costs and development risk
How procurement strategies, manufacturing costs and new technology stack up against development risk in Offshore Wind Projects. Offshore wind is changing, and it is changing for the better. In 2006, offshore wind deployment costs started rising significantly, from £1.5m/ MW, in 2016 prices, to over £4m/MW in 2012, without a clear indication as to what the price ceiling would be. There was an industry-wide realisation that a significant shift was necessary to avoid losing out on investments to alternati...
Energy, cost and design aspects of coarse- and fine-bubble aeration systems in the MBBR IFAS process
With the MBBR IFAS (moving bed biofilm reactor integrated fixed-film activated sludge) process, the biomass required for biological wastewater treatment is either suspended or fixed on free-moving plastic carriers in the reactor. Coarse- or fine-bubble aeration systems are used in the MBBR IFAS process. In this study, the oxygen transfer efficiency (OTE) of a coarse-bubble aeration system was improved significantly by the addition of the investigated carriers, even in-process (∼1% per vol-% of added carrier...
Investing in Energy Efficiency: The 10% Rule [Infographic]
Are you an energy manager that has recently been tasked to invest in energy efficiency measures, but have no idea how much they will cost? Does your existing energy management project need a financial boost that you don’t know how to estimate? Or perhaps you are one of the 62% of companies citing lack of access to finance & capital as their biggest barrier to implementing energy-saving upgrades? (If you don’t even know where to begin looking for money, check this previous post on funding resources...
Cool energy saving: how to cut energy waste from refrigeration and chilling
With an ongoing focus on energy and carbon management and cutting costs, the FMCG sector has a need to achieve energy savings, and refrigeration and chilling is the perfect place to focus. Whether it be manufacturing processes, food storage in distribution centres, or the operation of supermarket displays, industry producers, distributors and retailers can often expect around 50% of their site’s electricity costs to be from the use of refrigeration technology. In food transportation, the use of on-board...