Keywords: macrostructural changes, environmental management, consequences, chemical industry, Finland, Hungary, regime change, privatisation, European Union, EU membership, organisational change, structural change, industrial ecology
Environmental management consequences of macrostructural changes in a Finnish and a Hungarian chemical company
This paper compares the impacts of macrostructural changes in Finnish and Hungarian societies during 1989?2004 on the environmental management of a Finnish and a Hungarian chemical company. Regime change: Hungary's rapid change from socialist to market economy, Finland's equally rapid change from welfare society to market economy during the early 1990s. EU membership: Finland's in 1995, Hungary's in 2004. Privatisation: The Hungarian company followed the trend of 100% state-owned companies turning 100% privately owned; the Finnish company followed the trend of nearly 100% state-owned companies becoming increasingly private. These companies represent cases of survival and prosperity through major macrostructural changes. Reasons for success include the following: operating in absolutely necessary lines of businesses for environmentally slowly changing societies; efficient bureaucratic structures with capitalist mindsets; fostering managerial innovation, creativity and risk taking; adopting entrepreneurial approaches to environmental issues, transforming environmental threats to business opportunities. However, in the early 2000s the companies took different backward steps in environmental pioneering.