Keywords: sol-gel, thin films, monolith materials, photoluminescence, waveguide, X-ray diffraction, XRD, SEM, transmission electron microscopy, TEM, erbium, silica-phosphate glass, microstructure, nanocrystals, nanomaterials, nanotechnology
Erbium activated monolith silica-phosphate glasses planar waveguide and up-conversion mechanism
The structure of 3% of Er+3, Yb+3 ions doped silica-phosphate of two different concentrations 5 and 10% phosphate (P), in the form of thin film and monolith materials were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The types of structural information obtainable are compared in detail. The structural study revealed that the crystallite sizes of monolith silica-phosphate were about 19 and 17.6 nm sintered at 900 and 500°C. The coarse and fine microstructure of monolith prepared samples was depicted by transmission electron microscope (TEM), which revealed the presence of nano-structure scale in the prepared samples, confirming the data obtained from the XRD. The silica-phosphate doped with 3% of Er+3 and Yb+3 ions waveguides and its cooperative up-conversion were characterised by photoluminescence spectroscopy. Photoluminescence spectroscopy has demonstrated the embedding of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions in the nanocrystals, He-Cd and laser diodes were used for both mechanisms, respectively.