This document is the annual European Union (EU) emission inventory report under the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) (UNECE, 1979). The report and its accompanying data are provided as an official submission to the Executive Secretary of UNECE by the European Commission on behalf of the EU as a Party. The report is compiled by the European Environment Agency (EEA) in cooperation with the EU Member States.
Under the LRTAP Convention, parties (including the European Union) are obliged and invited to report emissions data for a large number of air pollutants, including:
- main pollutants: nitrogen oxides (NOX), non.methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), sulphur oxides (SOX), ammonia (NH3) and carbon monoxide (CO);
- particulate matter (PM): primary PM (fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and coarse particulate matter (PM10)) and total suspended particulates (TSP);
- priority heavy metals (HMs): lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg);
- additional HMs: arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn);
- persistent organic pollutants (POPs): polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/ dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs);
- additional reporting of the individual PAHs benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k) fluoranthene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene.
These pollutants each harm human health and the environment. In addition, certain species also contribute to the formation of ozone (O3) and PM in the atmosphere, and have an indirect and direct effect on radiative forcing and hence on climate (see Box ES.1).