Evaluating a composite cartridge for small system drinking water treatment
A pilot-scale evaluation was conducted at the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Test & Evaluation (T&E) Facility in Cincinnati, Ohio, on a multi-layer, cartridge-based system that combines physical filtration with carbon adsorption and ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection to serve as a home-base water treatment security device against accidental or intentional contaminant events. The system was challenged with different levels of turbidity, a number of biological contaminants including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, MS2 bacteriophage and Polystyrene Latex (PSL) beads as a surrogate for Cryptosporidium and a number of chemical contaminants including super-chlorination, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), water chlorination disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and diazinon. The results demonstrated that the performance of the system varies as a function of the specific contaminant or surrogate. The overall performance indicated the potential of the system to improve the quality and safety of household water and to serve as an additional treatment barrier in circumstances where there is little or no treatment or where the quality of treated water may have deteriorated during distribution. The results also demonstrated that B. subtilis spore can serve as a more conservative surrogate for Cryptosporidium than PSL beads.