Institutions (formal rules) governing water allocation and use are often critical to a nation's development and prosperity. It is often necessary to change water institutions as economic, physical and political circumstance change. In this paper, a framework is presented to help understand the potential and need for change in water institutions. The pressure for institutional change can be analyzed at the micro level, in terms of the incentives for individuals to organize in order to influence the structure of rules governing water. Economic incentives and interest-group politics combine to produce changes that may or may not be efficient. Change in water institutions can also be evaluated at the meso level, where the structure and sequencing of actual change is at issue. The concepts of nesting, path dependency and institutional transaction costs are particularly useful in understanding this level of change. The concepts presented can help economists evaluate the pressure for, and obstacles to, institutional change in a particular country. These insights may be used by those interested in adapting and designing water institutions that yield improvements in the use of water resources.
- IWA Publishing
- Evaluating changes in water institutions: methodological issues ...
The Next Generation of Level Control
Water is an essential resource for everyday life, and thus having a way to store and distribute water is of critical importance. Water storage tanks have been designed to compensate for varying water demands during high and low peak periods, as well as for firefighting, power outages and other emergency demands. There are many ways to store water in a distribution system, but what it all boils down to is the importance of the control system that ensures water storage is done right. It’s common...
Case study - Weather data for nautical information system
In Lemwerder, Germany at the Weser River, wind direction and speed are measured and transferred in 60 second intervals via the OTT netDL 1000. The data is transmitted, wireless, over a distance of 600 meters to the radar tower in Ritzenbuettel, where it is integrated into the ship traffic network - the Authority for Water and Navigation (WSA), Bremen. The WSA is also responsible for monitoring the traffic network for safety conditions. Each hour, a status report including the current water levels, weather...
Case study - E.ON Power Plant Nuremberg
Water level, water flow and discharge are monitored at two inflows of the E.ON electricity power plan Franken I, using the OTT SLD, with horizontal Doppler-flow sensors. The purpose of this measurement is to optimize the operation of the plan which partly covers the demand for electricity in the conurbation of Nuremberg-Fuerth-Erlangen. OTT technologies for this project have been in use since 2009.Background The power plant Franken I in Nuremberg-Gebersdorf went on line already in 1913. Today it contributes a...
Case study - Water quality monitoring and weather data at Pampulha Lake-Brasil
In 2010, OTT Hydromet`s partner in Brasil, Hexis began working with CETEC. This resulted in the installation of a buoy, equipped with an automatic profiling system, in early 2013. The project’s objective is the continuous monitoring of the lake’s water quality, with focus on improving this by the 2014 World Cup Games. Adcon, Lufft and OTT technologies (Hydrolab DS5X multi-parameter probe and OTT DuoSens datalogger) are used in conjunction with one another to record the water quality data. Background...
Case study - Ireland Groundwater Monitoring Program
To fulfill the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requirements, a groundwater monitoring program was established by the Environmental Protection Agency of Ireland. This program focuses on providing information to assess the environmental status of surface and groundwater bodies. Read about the program and the example installation in the Bog of the Ring.Technology Used: OTT Orpheus Mini, OTT ITC, and OTT KL 010 Contact Gauges. Background The Environmental Protection Agency of Ireland operates 130 wells (5...