The virus adsorption-elution (VIRADEL) technique has been widely used in the recovery of various enteric viruses in water, and an electropositive filter such as 1 MDS has been commonly applied. However, effective methods of monitoring waterborne norovirus (NoV) have not yet been well characterized and optimized. Hence, in this study, the VIRADEL technique was evaluated and optimized for effectively detecting NoV in water by two commonly used electropositive filters (1MDS and NanoCeram filter). Various elution and concentration methods were evaluated by using both murine norovirus (MNV) and human NoV. Among the tested elution buffers, the most effective was 1.5% beef extract plus 0.01% Tween 80 for both 1MDS (67.5%) and NanoCeram (85.7%) microfilters. The recovery rate of GII-4 human NoV was higher by organic flocculation (86.6%) than by polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitations (11.6~73.6%). When both 1MDS and NanoCeram filters were tested to detect NoV in surface and groundwater, the sensitivity of NoV recovered by these filters appeared to depend on the types and conditions of environmental water. The results of this study will help to set a standard of detection method for NoV in water.
Keywords: electropositive microfilter, norovirus (NoV), virus adsorption-elution (VIRADEL) technique, water