Keywords: balancing energy, operating reserve, wind energy, wholesale electricity market, wind power integration, Germany, legislation, regulation, economic development
Evaluation of wind power integration practices in Germany
With over 20, 6 GW installed wind capacity, Germany is the world leader in this domain. Integration of power, stochastically produced by thousands of wind converters requires extensive legislative and operational regulation. In Germany, this is actually done by the Renewable Energy Act (Bundestag, 2004) and several derived agreements (i.e. VDN, 2005a,b, 2006) among the affected parties. In this paper, the German integration practices are evaluated from an economical perspective.