Keywords: meteorological models, FAIRMODE, statistical scores, evaluation tools, numerical weather prediction, NWP, WRF model, air pollution, air quality, model validation, benchmarking, simulation, atmospheric dispersion modelling, Europe, wind speed, temperature, urban areas, Alpine region
Evaluation of WRF model performance in different European regions with the DELTA–FAIRMODE evaluation tool
One–year (2006) WRF model simulations performed at a European scale and ECMWF–IFS forecasts are compared with 10 m wind speed and 2 m temperature observations from around 1,200 surface stations. A statistical evaluation on the modelled meteorological fields is performed using the DELTA software, developed in the framework of FAIRMODE, the forum for air quality modellers relevant to the application of the European Air Quality Directive. In terms of wind speed, ECMWF forecasts are pretty good over most of the domain, while WRF model simulations are less skillful, e.g., they show a larger bias and RMSE. Regarding 2 m temperature, performance criteria are better satisfied by both modelling systems. Finally, the models' statistics are exemplified in a couple of specific areas: near Berlin, one of the urban areas showing a better model performance, and in the Alpine region, where the model skill is very poor.