Physical/chemical treatment uses the physical properties of the contaminants or the contaminated medium to destroy (i.e, chemically convert), separate, or contain the contamination. UV oxidation is a destruction technology, and all other technologies included in this subsection are separation technologies.
Physical/chemical treatment is typically cost effective and can be completed in short time periods (in comparison with biological treatment). Equipment is readily available and is not engineering or energy-intensive. Treatment residuals from separation techniques will require treatment or disposal, which will add to the total project costs and may require permits.
Available ex situ physical/chemical treatment technologies include adsorption/absorption, air stripping, liquid phase carbon adsorption, ion exchange, precipitation/coagulation/ flocculation, separation, sprinkler irrigation and UV oxidation.