Physical/chemical treatment uses the physical properties of the contaminants or the contaminated medium to destroy (i.e, chemically convert), separate, or immobilize the contamination. Chemical reduction/oxidation and dehalogenation (APEG, BCD or glycolate) are destruction technologies. Soil washing, SVE, and solvent extraction are separation techniques, and Solidification/Stabilization (S/S) is an immobilization technique.
Physical/chemical treatment is typically cost effective and can be completed in short time periods (in comparison with biological treatment). Equipment is readily available and is not engineering or energy-intensive. Treatment residuals from separation techniques will require treatment or disposal, which will add to the total project costs and may require permits.
Available ex situ physical/chemical treatment technologies include chemical extraction, chemical reduction/oxidation, dehalogenation (APEG, BCD or glycolate), separation, soil washing, SVE, solar detoxification, S/S, and solvent extraction.