Keywords: exergy efficiency, operating efficiency, Reistad estimates, energy efficiency, transport industry, transport modes
Exergy efficiency factors for transportation: updated Reistad estimates
Studies that involve the estimation of the energy and exergy efficiencies of the transportation sector commonly use the operating efficiency estimates of the different modes of transportation that date back to 1970. Considering the improvements in operating efficiency realised since 1970 in all modes of transportation, the use of these estimates in current studies may cause inaccuracies in the results obtained. In the absence of comprehensive new studies and estimates to replace the 1970 estimates, this paper presents a set of operating efficiency estimates that were obtained by modifying the original estimates using published values that reflect the improvements in energy efficiency since 1970.