John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Fate of flame retardants and the antimicrobial agent triclosan in planted and unplanted biosolid‐amended soils

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A comprehensive understanding of the fate of contaminant‐laden biosolids is needed to fully evaluate the environmental impacts of biosolids land application. This study examined the fate of several flame retardants and triclosan in biosolid‐amended soil in a 90‐day greenhouse experiment. Objectives included evaluating the persistence of these compounds in soil, their phytoaccumulation potential by alfalfa (Medicago sativa), and potential degradation reactions. Concentrations of the polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners BDE‐47 and BDE‐209, and the antimicrobial triclosan, declined significantly over time in biosolid‐amended soil planted with alfalfa and then reached a steady‐state by Day 28. In contrast, no significant losses of those analytes were observed from soil in non‐vegetated pots. The amount of an analyte lost from vegetated soil ranged from 43% for the flame retardant di(2‐ethylhexyl)‐2,3,4,5‐tetrabromophthalate (TBPH) to 61% for triclosan, and was significantly and negatively related to the octanol‐water partition coefficient (log KOW). Alfalfa root and shoots were monitored for the compounds but no clear evidence of phytoaccumulation was observed. Methyl triclosan formation was observed in the biosolid‐amended soils during the study period, indicating in situ biotransformation of triclosan. This study demonstrates that, while highly recalcitrant, PBDEs, selected alternate BFRs and triclosan are capable of undergoing dissipation from biosolidamended soils in the presence of plants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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