During 2009-2010, RTI International developed and published a financial model which calculates the financially optimum level of Non-Revenue Water (NRW). The model computes a target (under future steady-state conditions) for NRW reduction and control programs, based on site conditions and local costs. The model was presented at IWA Water Loss Specialist Conferences in Cape Town and Sao Paulo and international meetings in Morocco, Uganda, Jordan and the UK. It has been applied in over 30 countries using secondary data, and applied at a more detailed level in Brazil, Jordan, Uganda, and Zambia.
During 2010-2011, RTI International worked closely with 2 water supply utilities, in Jordan and Brazil on customized in-depth application of the model. The authors of this paper engaged in extensive discussions and data exchange to adapt, apply, and refine the original model to the two utilities in the two countries. The paper first outlines the water resource, water distribution, economic and social conditions in the locations in Brazil and Jordan. Next, the paper reviews historical information on NRW reduction and control programs, including the level of NRW (using several different indicators) as well as the strategies, actions, programs and management approaches included in the NRW efforts implemented by each utility.