Flood occurrence hazard forecasting based on geographical information system
The application of Geographical Information system (GIS) in modeling flood and its prediction in catchments offers considerable potential. Several examples illustrate simple GIS techniques to produce flood hazard indices or its zonation using hydrologic-type models. Existing flood models can also be loosely coupled to a GIS, such as the HMS (Hydrological Modeling System) model. Forethermore, models can be fully integrated into a GIS by embedded coupling, such as the SCS (Soil Conservation Service) model. Installation of flood forecasting systems in watersheds with incomplete hydrometric data may reduce the flood-induced damages. In this study Geographical Information system used to up to date the watershed data and estimation of SCS model parameters which is sensible to considered the real time flood forecasting in Kasilian catchment of Mazandaran province. The main aim of this paper is to investigate the possibility of the linkage between GIS with a comprehensive hydrologic model, especially HMS. The use of GIS could produce a suitable agreement between observed results (extracted rainfall and runoff data of 1992, 1995 and 1996 from the related stations) with the calculated results of the hydrological model. The obtained results from rainfall-runoff process simulations of the model in this research showed that submergibility of the main watershed, Kasillian, does not depend on the outlet discharge rate of each one of its watershed independently. But it is related to how those two outlet hydrographs from main river watershed are combined. The model is capable of showing the flood characteristics temporally and spatially in each cross section of the channel network.