Asbestos waste spills in a gray gash down the flank of a lush green hill above tribal villages that are home to thousands in eastern India. Three decades after the mines were abandoned, nothing has been done to remove the enormous, hazardous piles of broken rocks and powdery dust left behind.
In Roro Village and nearby settlements, people who never worked in the mines are dying of lung disease. Yet in a country that treats asbestos as a savior that provides cheap building materials for the poor, no one knows the true number and few care to ask.
'I feel weak, drained all the time,' Baleman Sundi gasped, pushing the words out before she lost her breath. 'But I must work.' The 65-year-old paused, inhaled. 'I don't have a choice.' Another gasp. 'I have to eat.'
Sundi and 17 others from a clutch of impoverished villages near the abandoned hilltop mines were diagnosed in 2012 with asbestosis, a fatal lung disease. One has since died. Tens of thousands more, some of them former mine workers, remain untested and at risk. Asbestos makes up as much as 14.3 percent of the soil around Roro Village, analysis of samples gathered by The Associated Press showed.
Few have done anything to help people such as Sundi. The villagers have no money for doctors or medical treatment, and cannot afford to move.
Neither the government nor the Indian company that ran the mines from 1963 to 1983 has made any move to clean up the estimated 700,000 tons of asbestos tailings left scattered across several kilometers (miles) of hilly mining area.
The mine's operator, Hyderabad Asbestos Cement Products Ltd., nowadays known as HIL Ltd., says it has done nothing illegal.
'The company had followed all rules and procedures for closure of a mine and had complied with the provisions of the law, as in force in 1983,' it said in a statement released to the AP.
Sundi and the others are suing in the country's environmental court for cleanup, compensation and a fund for future victims of asbestos-related disease. If they win, the case would set precedents for workplace safety and corporate liability, subjects often ignored or dismissed in developing India.
'There will be justice only if we win,' Sundi rasped. 'Whoever did this must pay.'
India placed a moratorium on asbestos mining in 1986, acknowledging that the fibrous mineral was hazardous to the miners.
But that was the government's last decision curtailing the spread of asbestos. It has since embraced the mineral as a cheap building material. Today India is the world's fastest-growing market for asbestos.
In the last five years, India's asbestos imports shot up 300 percent. The government helps the $2 billion asbestos manufacturing industry with low tariffs on imports. It has also blocked asbestos from being listed as a hazardous substance under the international Rotterdam Convention governing how dangerous chemicals are handled.
The country keeps no statistics on how many people have been sickened or died from exposure to the mineral, which industry and many government officials insist is safe when mixed with cement.
Western scientists strongly disagree.
The World Health Organization and more than 50 countries, including the United States and all of Europe, say it should be banned in all forms. Asbestos fibers lodge in the lungs and cause many diseases. The International Labor Organization estimates 100,000 people die every year from workplace exposure, and experts believe thousands more die from exposure elsewhere.
'My greatest concern is what will happen in India. It's a slow-moving disaster, and this is only the beginning,' said Philip Landrigan, a New York epidemiologist who heads the Rome-based Collegium Ramazzini, which pioneered the field of occupational health worldwide.
'The epidemic will go largely unrecognized,' he said. Eventually, 'it's going to end up costing India billions of dollars.'
From the top of Roro Hill, a small boy leaped out to slide down the cascade of fluffy grey dust. A few villagers followed, nudging a herd of cows and goats. Huge clouds billowed in their wake.
The villagers often ignore the warnings from visiting doctors and activists to stay away from the waste. Many don't believe the asbestos, which looks like regular rocks and dirt, could be dangerous. Others are more fatalistic, noting they hardly have a choice.
'What can we do? This is our land,' said 56-year-old Jema Sundi, diagnosed with asbestosis though she never went into the mines. 'We tell the children, don't go there. But they are children, you cannot control them.'
She then noticed her 4-year-old nephew Vijay, his tiny body covered with chalky white streaks, shrinking into himself as if trying to disappear. 'You went up there today again?' she exclaimed.
Vijay, lowering his head, attempted a half-smile.
When Hyderabad Asbestos first began mining in Jharkhand in 1963, India was in its second decade of independence and attempting to industrialize. Most services and industries were nationalized, but some heavy industries and mining were opened to private companies, many of which operated opaquely.
Hydrabad Asbestos employed about 1,500 people in the asbestos mines. Most were tribal villagers eager to participate in the country's development. But for them that development never arrived.
Kalyan Bansingh, lead plaintiff in the court case, worked more than a decade building scaffolding inside newly blasted mining caverns. Like many laborers across India, he took to chewing an unrefined sugar product called jaggery in the misguided belief that airborne fibers would adhere to the sticky bolus and stay out of his lungs.
Sometimes the company provided the jaggery along with his $2 weekly salary, but it never offered him protective masks or clothing, he said.
Bansingh regrets the job, even if it was the only paid work he ever had. 'I can't run or walk long distances. I am breathless with just a few steps,' the muscular 70-year-old said.
HIL said it followed strict health and safety policies, and that 'no health or environmental damage was reported during the mine operations.' The company did not address whether it had ever sent anyone to check on the villagers' health since the mines closed. Villagers told AP they were never been invited for a company-sponsored checkup after 1983.
The fact that Bansingh and the other plaintiffs ever had the opportunity for a diagnosis was extremely rare. Like most people in villages at the foot of Roro Hill, they cannot read or write. They live in makeshift homes of hard-packed mud, thatched roofs and tidily swept dirt floors.
'The idea that the environment, something that has always provided and been taken for granted, could be causing them harm is a notion that just doesn't occur to them,' said T.K. Joshi, a doctor who heads India's only university department specializing in occupational health. 'And unfortunately, most Indian doctors are not trained to ask the right questions.'
Because X-rays and detailed patient interviews are rare in rural India, experts say most Indians who suffer or have died from an asbestos-related disease were likely misdiagnosed with tuberculosis, food poisoning or other illnesses common across India.
Now India's largest asbestos-manufacturing company, HIL had revenue of about $160 million for 2013-14, while spending about $72 million on imports of asbestos from countries such as Russia, Kazakhstan and Brazil. It plans to scale back manufacturing asbestos-cement products, but the decision was not made for environmental or health concerns.
According to its annual report, the company is diversifying because the 'closure of certain mines across the world has resulted in increased dependency on limited sources.'
Shutting down asbestos mines is a dirty and costly business. There is also the danger of releasing more fibers into the air just by disturbing waste or breaking down old materials. Hundreds of millions have been spent in the United States alone cleaning old asbestos mines in states including California and Montana.
The samples collected by AP and tested by California-based laboratory EMSL Analytical Inc. showed the soil around Roro Village was between 4.1 and 14.3 percent asbestos.
'It's heartbreaking. Kids are playing on it. People are stirring it up. You don't have to inhale much to put a cap on your life,' said Richard Fuller, CEO of the Blacksmith Institute, a New York-based watchdog that estimates 50,000 people could be at risk.
Other, smaller asbestos mines in states including Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan and Chhattisgarh have also been left in a state of neglect similar to Roro's, mining activists say.
Activists, medical workers and lawyers have described an almost Kafkaesque effort to hold the government and company accountable over the past decade, with both declaring the mine closed and subject settled long ago.
At the time the mines were open, Jharkhand state didn't even exist. The land was part of a wider Bihar state, with its capital and official paperwork held in a different city. Neither state has been able to produce the 30-year-old documents pertaining to the mine's closure.
'As far as environmental issues are concerned, we have already dealt with it,' Jharkhand state's Mining Secretary Arun, who uses only one name, told AP.
In 2012, an activist group selected 150 Roro-area villagers for chest X-rays. The X-ray plates were examined by Dr. V. Murlidhar, an occupational health specialist, who confirmed 18 had the tell-tale honeycomb pattern of opaqueness that denotes asbestosis.
The results were neither surprising nor unique, he said. 'More cases are likely' because asbestosis usually develops over decades of exposure, he said.
Across all of India, only 30 people have ever received marginal compensation - through out-of-court settlements - for asbestos-related disease out of hundreds of thousands of workers who have handled asbestos since the 1960s or lived near mines or manufacturing plants.
Lawyer Krishnendu Mukherjee, who is spearheading the case, has high hopes for a judgment that awards the plaintiffs and future claimants with generous compensation.
A strong verdict, he said, 'sends a very strong message out to companies like HIL Ltd. that it's not permissible to simply leave a mine, a factory, whatever it is, in a state of abandonment without looking at the repercussions on the local population or on the workers.'