Keywords: confined blasting, fragmentation, sub-level caving, granular material, debris, small-scale blasting, blasting rings, rock breakage, acoustic impedance
Fragmentation in small-scale confined blasting
Design of sub-level blasting rounds and optimisation has become more important now when the sizes of the blasting rings get larger. Sufficient fragmentation is one of the key factors, and in confined blasting as in sub-level caving, this influences the mobilisation of the blasted ring. Model scale tests have been made to understand the mechanisms of rock breakage and therefore fragmentation under relatively confined conditions. By using the acoustic impedance between the blasted material and the confining debris, a relationship for fragmentation has been found depending on material, specific charge (powder factor) and physical properties of the debris. The results can be comparable with confined blasting in large scale.