The South African government’s policy decision in 2001 to provide a basic amount of water free of charge to all citizens has been controversial. Traditional policy advice was that all water should be paid for, even if some costs were subsidized. A review of the implementation of the new policy suggests that the flexible approach adopted ensured wide applicability, although it has been criticized for defects of both exclusion and inclusion. However, it has helped not only to achieve social equity but also has supported the broader objectives of conservation and environmental sustainability. The political legitimacy conferred by the approach has enabled water supply organizations to recover their costs and achieve the economic objective of financial sustainability. South Africa’s experience with free basic water thus demonstrates that addressing social and environmental dimensions together with economic dimensions can lead to more effective and sustainable policy.
Beliefs, Politics, and Environmental Policy
IntroductionMany of us who work on environmental issues have faced the challenge of conveying their importance to nonspecialists. Perhaps we have found ourselves defending the robustness of climate science to a contrarian uncle, or extolling the importance of biodiversity to a dubious aunt. Our relations and friends are often educated people, skilled in their own professions, who have formed strong opinions about the science underlying environmental problems, their potential consequences for their own lives, and...
Understanding Geographical Instrumentation
Geographical instrumentation is one of the much heard terms especially in the field of building. Anywhere, where construction is carried out then services rendered for site examination plays an important role. It helps in identifying possible risks and also effectiveness present within the current site or structure. Designing of the Site The basic step which is carried out at a construction site is its designing stage. Once the design of a particular field or area has been developed, the next most important...
Know About Tunnel and Environmental Monitoring
Building a house may take a few months. Someone who has ever supervised the construction of a house must be aware that there are so many activities which are done for it. Now, think about the large construction projects. The roads, flyovers, railway tracks etc. we use today are result of rigorous hard work and planning undertaken by different construction companies. A large number of decisions have to be taken to make sure that a project is successfully completed. A lot of money and workforce is involved in every...
Hydraulic Fracturing and the Environment Whitepaper - Analytical and Measuring Instruments
The recovery of natural gas and oil from untraditional wells is necessary for the economic stability of the United States. Shale gas deposits are deep below the earth’s surface and recovery of gas is expensive and requires millions of gallons of water mixed with chemicals, known as "fracking solution". Most fracking solution stays underground or returns to the surface mixed with formation water, also known as production water. This article review the hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, industry in the U.S.,...
Get Aware of Environmental Monitoring
Though, several construction projects are undertaken for the benefit of the community as a whole, there are different outcomes of them as well. There is no project which causes zero harm to the environment. Some kind of harm is always done to the surroundings when several activities are done by human beings. Human civilization has come to a point where most people have realized that a lot of harm has already been done to the environment by the activities undertaken by them. Now days, it is not easy to undertake...